## Volume №3(23) / 2021

#### Articles in journal

The concept of resilience and related concepts of energy and environmental safety are considered. It is proposed to use the quality of life as a integration factor of resilience research of energy, socioecological and socio-economic systems. Criteria for the resilience of energy, ecological and social systems are introduced. Cognitive modeling is seen as one of the main tools in resilience research. Examples of cognitive modeling are given.

This paper examines an ontological approach to integrating knowledge to support interdisciplinary studies in energy and ecology in terms of quality of life assessment. These studies involve the integration of environmental and social components. The environmental component is determined by natural and climatic conditions and the state of elements of the natural environment of a particular territory. The social component implies meeting the demand of the population for electricity and heat, which are necessary for comfortable living. To compare the positive and negative impacts of the operation of energy facilities on the natural environment and the population, quality of life metrics are considered as a way to assess these impacts. We present ontologies detailing the basic concepts of the subject area of research on the anthropogenic impact of energy facilities and quality of life, and reflecting their integration into a single ontological space of knowledge. The use of the ontological approach provides a visual representation and integration of knowledge from different subject areas.

The technology of digital twins is a basic one in the process of energy "digitalization." An essential component of the digital twin development is data collection from a physical facility to monitor and control this facility. Advanced information support systems designed to control the UES of Russia (SCADA and WAMS) provide control centers with considerable amounts of information, which can be used to create a digital twin of an individual energy facility or entire power system. This paper proposes the use of edge analytics technology that enables the collection, processing, and analysis of data on network peripheral units near the information source, to reduce the amount and cost of transmission and storage of a whole host of data when creating digital twins of energy facilities. A modern digital substation is considered as a facility to be digitally twinned.

The analytical GIS program is intended for the purposes of a multi-parameter assessment of transport and energy infrastructure availability, potential for mining, incl. energy resources, as well as availability of alternative renewable energy sources in a certain geographic location, promising from point of requirement for energy production deployment, located in remote or inaccessible regions of Russia; for the purposes of strategic planning of the development of regions, the development of new territories, incl. deposits of various resources. Practical application of GIS makes it possible to increase the efficiency of the strategic decision-making process.

The article forms a sequence of actions to determine the environmental characteristics of the functioning of energy facilities. The indicators of energy facilities and reference data required to obtain intermediate indicators of research stages are presented. A description of the models for determining the mass of emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and the mass of ash and slag waste are described. The models are developed on the basis of approved methodologies for thermal power plants, boiler houses and diesel power plants. It is shown that technologies for calculating environmental characteristics for each category of energy facilities depend on the type of fuel burned and the type of equipment used. The systematization of information for models to determining the environmental characteristics of the functioning of energy facilities has been carried out. All the necessary information is presented in the form of three large blocks: characteristics of settlements; indicators of energy facilities; reference data on types of fuel, energy and capture equipment. A detailed description of the indicators of each block of information is given. The dependence of the list of determined environmental characteristics of energy facilities on the type of burned fuel is shown. The sources of information and the availability of obtaining indicators for each block are indicated.

The paper presents an algorithm of computational experiment on the example of the implementation of one of the threats to energy security "Lack of investment in the energy sector" using cognitive and economic-mathematical models. The features of the inclusion of the investment component in the model of optimization of options for the development of the fuel and energy complex, taking into account energy security, are considered. A cognitive model for analyzing the threat “Lack of investment in the energy sector” is presented. The description of PC INTEC-A, which provides the ability to integrate cognitive and mathematical models, is given.

The article investigates the dependence of the stationary combustion temperature of layer combustion of biomass on the feed rate and specific consumption of air blast. For this, the stationary heat balance equation, together with the simplest kinetic equation for a chemical reaction, is solved over a wide range of parameters. For a numerical solution, a number of assumptions are introduced (a narrow reaction zone, preferential heat removal by radiant heat conduction, equilibrium composition of oxidation products). The calculation results give the boundary values of the consumption and stoichiometric parameters at which stable combustion is possible.

The Relevance of the research is due to the need for active gasification of large territorial entities (new residential agglomerations under construction, cottage and dacha settlements, as well as large industrial complexes). On the other hand, the increase in the total length of gas distribution systems and the complexity of the configuration of gas pipeline schemes continues. These factors affect the reliability of the gas distribution systems and place high demands on the part of energy consumers for trouble-free operation. Purpose. The main initial reliability information used for analyzing the reliability of gas pipelines is the failure rates of its elements: individual sections of the linear part, gas pumping units, etc., and the recovery rates of these elements. These indicators characterize such properties of reliability as reliability and maintainability. The purpose of the research is to assess the impact of reliability and maintainability of equipment on the integral reliability indicators of the gas distribution system (GDS). These include the expectation, variance and standard deviation of the throughput of the GDS, as well as the reliability coefficient of the pipeline. Methods: equivalent methods, analytical method at the level of random Markov processes - the scheme of "death and reproduction", the theorem of addition and multiplication of probabilities, the composition of distribution series; mathematical model of reliability analysis of the designed main gas pipeline. Results. On the basis of a mathematical model for assessing the reliability of the designed main gas pipeline and the developed computational program, calculations were performed to determine the integral indicators of the reliability of the conventional gas distribution system. So, studies have shown that when the initial reliability indicators (failure rates and recoveries) of the GDS elements are changed by the same amount, their effect on the change in the integral reliability indicators of the GDS has a different effect. Conclusion. On the basis of the proposed mathematical model for analyzing the reliability of the GDS, the influence of the failure rate indicators and the recovery rate of elements characterizing the reliability and maintainability of gas transmission systems on its integral reliability indicators, in particular, on the reliability coefficient, is shown.

The relevance of the article is due to the transition of energy to the path of intellectual development. One of the characteristics of this transition is the broadening of the prospects for decentralized electricity generation. Under the new conditions, a consumer has the opportunity to change his energy consumption depending on the cost of energy resources, to have his own installations for the production and / or storage of electricity. The article briefly presents the features of the use and technology of distributed generation (DG) energy in certain sectors of the economy (industry, residential and commercial sectors, transport). Some methods of determining the prospective values of the power of the RG at consumers are given. An approach to modeling and assessing the impact of the scale of distributed generation on the long-term development of regional power supply systems is proposed. A distinctive feature of the approach is the use of the previously developed stochastic optimization model of the unified power system of the macroregion as a basis for the development of its regional modification and a source of forecast information on the conditions for the development of the regional power system. Of course, the proposed approach gives only a rough estimate, but it allows us to outline a promising range of changes in the cost and demand for electricity in the region under different options for the development of the RG.

To make a decision on the introduction of international factoring in the package of export-import services of the bank, it is necessary to calculate the economic effect of this event. For this purpose, the work considered models for assessing the effectiveness of factoring implementation for a bank, which allow, having basic data on the planned factoring operation and the borrowing company, to assess the effectiveness of lending for the bank, which will reduce the risk of bank losses from ineffective operations. Achievement of the maximum effect (obtaining the ideal maximum profit) throughout the entire operation is prevented by a number of risks accompanying any international factorial operation. An economic and mathematical model is considered, in which the condition of maximizing the expectation of a bank's profit was taken as the criterion of efficiency, taking into account the main characteristics that qualitatively distinguish an international factoring operation from standard active operations. The revealed qualitative regularities make it possible to use quantitative methods for assessing the effectiveness and reliability of factoring. Chesser's static model is taken as the basis for constructing a model of international factorial operations. Since the international factoring operation is characterized by the duration of the financing period, it becomes necessary to use the NPV (Net Present Value) method. When conducting export-import transactions, an important place is occupied by the change in the price of one currency, normalized relative to the other. For a numerical assessment of this type of risk, a model is used, which is based on the theory of differential equations. Thus, the assessment of the effectiveness of an international factoring operation is reduced to an algorithm that takes into account both the effect of currency risk and delcredere risk.