Volume №3(27) / 2022
Articles in journal
This paper presents the software tools of the Internet platform for rating assessment of the life quality of territories in the context of thenational projects implementation. The platform functioning is based on the original method of integrated analytical assessment of the life quality, which provides the formation of comprehensive assessments using a geographically-oriented normative model. The platform provides spatio-temporal analysis of assessment results, cartographic analysis and qualitative interpretation of the obtained assessments. The analytical platform presents a client-server application with a web interface. The practical result of the work is an implementation of platform for assessing the life quality of the population in the Krasnoyarsk Region according to data provided by Automated Information System for Municipalities Monitoring. Application of the analytical Internet platform makes it possible to provide information support for the tasks of planning events and monitoring the achievement of national projects target indicators at the municipal level
The paper presents the results of a study of territorial clusters of a macro-region by applying the multidimensional analysis methods – principal component analysis and cluster analysis – to data on the life quality of municipal territories in the Krasnoyarsk region. In the context of life quality indicators, the key characteristics and features of the existing territorial clusters of the region are identified. Based on the analysis of the actual values of the indicators and the calculated integral assessments of the life quality, the territories were clustered, and the principles for distribution of municipal territories by clusters were determined. The results of the study made it possible to identify the features and conditions for the development of municipal territories, to identify problematic and promising directions of the economy and social sphere of the macro-region, which allow more efficient planning and implementation of strategic actions to improve the life quality in the territories of the Krasnoyarsk region using the advantages of the cluster approach.
One of the effective technological methods for ensuring the comparability of data, characterizing the state of territorial systems from different position is to convert it to a form of mapping models, known as zoning of territorial systems. This paper discusses the problems of zoning the territory of the Republic Bashkortostan on the example of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) disease data. Zoning results provide the basis for solving other information problems. The paper also discusses the issues of identifying similar states of the territorial system for this indicator in different time slices. Analysis of the state of the territory as a whole is reduced in a comparison of the results obtained by means of mathematical and geoinformation models relative to the entire studied territory under various conditions of simulation. Proposed approach, allows to increase the number of particular characteristics, that is, the number of points of view on the state of the territory system.
The photosynthetic systems I and II chloroplasts genes spatial structure is considered. The spatial structure is understood as the distribution of points corresponding to the frequency dictionaries of genes in the space of triplets frequencies in this work. The photosystems I and II genes are clustered according to their belonging to the forward and reverse strands. Points corresponding to genes in the forward and reverse strands are located at a distance from the main clusters. Any structure wasn't found for the distribution of the genes' GCcontent values in the frequency space.
Currently, face recognition systems are a widespread way of biometric identification in practice. However, such systems require protection against unauthorized actions in the form of so-called presentation attacks, when an attacker replaces genuine images with fake images or short video sequences. The article proposes a method for detecting presentation attacks using the depth of the scene without the use of special sensors. The challenge is to enhance the subtle difference between genuine and fake images. For this, a deep network was trained and tested, consisting of central difference convolution blocks and a multi-scale attention module. Experiments have shown that pre-processing input face images to the HSV color space has an advantage in the accuracy of detecting fake images. Thus, the detection accuracy on our own dataset, KITTI and Cityscapes datasets increased by 3-7% depending on the capture devices, lighting conditions, and settings of the algorithm.
The article deals with the development of nuclear energy in the Republic of Belarus in the context of sustainable energy development. Based on the author's methodology, an analysis was made of the dynamics of sustainable energy development of the Republic of Belarus in 1995-2020. The directions of sustainable energy development of the Republic of Belarus up to 2030 have been determined. A formalized model of the energy system of the Republic of Belarus has been built, an initial data base has been collected for modeling the energy production of electric energy for the medium term in the MESSAGE program. Scenarios for the development of the energy system of the Republic of Belarus are constructed, taking into account the commissioning of the Belarusian nuclear power plant, depending on different rates of growth in demand for electricity. The forecasts of production and cost of electric energy in the energy system of the Republic of Belarus for the period up to 2050 were made according to the selected scenarios. A comparative analysis of the simulation results was carried out according to the following criteria: the structure of energy production, the volume and structure of commissioned capacities, fuel consumption for electricity generation, and the cost of electricity
The purpose of this scientific research is to develop and test a methodological approach to a comprehensive environmental analysis of energy technologies, since any implemented energy technology is accompanied by a violation of the ecological balance in nature. The problem of developing a new methodological approach is to more fully represent the possible impact on this violation in order to determine the most environmentally friendly alternative for its further implementation. The article summarizes domestic and foreign experience in creating similar methodological approaches and proposes the development of a new method for a comprehensive comparison of energy technologies, including the formation and calculation of environmental criteria that characterize the impact of energy technologies on the environment. The developed methodological approach is presented in the form of a diagram and consists of three stages: information support, criteria-based assessment of energy technologies and their comparative analysis and ranking using multi-criteria analysis methods. For this purpose, tasks are structurized, energy-environmental criteria are formed and their functional analysis is carried out. The main feature of the methodological approach is a systematic comparison of energy technologies throughout the life cycle of their existence. The article discusses two energy technologies, a traditional CHP burning coal and a wind power plant with electric boilers at the level of production, operation and disposal of their main equipment. Energy technologies are compared using the linear convolution method, which has the advantage that it requires a minimum amount of input from the user, and the output is easily visualized. The studies are of an enlarged nature and were carried out in order to demonstrate the efficiency of the technique.
The material contains information about the creation of a budgetary digital system for monitoring the water level of open reservoirs, which includes measuring sensors, devices for collecting and transmitting data to a server for data processing. A method and device for determining the liquid level in open reservoirs is described. The decision to use data transmission technology as in information-measuring systems (IMS) is substantiated. A solution is proposed to create a radio modem for data transmission to the server.
Computational studies of thermal-hydraulic processes in the core of nuclear reactors with supercritical water coolant are of high importance, especially at the stage of concept development of such reactors. At the same time, the complexity of determining the water properties at supercritical parameters leads to the need for further development of thermal-hydraulic models and forecasting tools, for which one has to turn to modern computer science and information systems. Such studies are necessary in justifying the safety of nuclear reactor concepts with supercritical coolant parameters. As a part of the safety justification for pressurized water reactors, the RELAP5 program code has been widely used. When performing calculations, the correlations used in the program code to describe the heat transfer process between the wall and the liquid are extremely important. In order to assess the correctness of the data on heat transfer in pipes and bundles with supercritical water used in RELAP5 code, a reproduction of an experiment on heat transfer in the vertical pipe was performed. The series of calculations for the wall and the coolant temperatures at the pressures of 23 and 25 MPa and various heat fluxes in the range from 600 kW/m2 to 1100 kW/m2 have been performed. The results of the experiment are compared with the results of its computational reproduction. The calculated and experimental results are compared with the theoretical characterization of heat transfer mechanism in supercritical pressure water.
The paper addresses the information technology of the development of Russian enterprises from the point of view of increasing or decreasing (destroying) business value. We used a discounted cash flow model to estimate the fundamental value of the business. To study the palpable change in the economic parameters of enterprises, we have developed a modification of the formula for the value of a business based on discounted cash flows in an analytical form, assuming that many parameters remain unchanged. This assumption is confirmed by the dynamics of the development of large organizations. Model calculations were carried out based on information from the official financial statements of the Russian organizations. Methods for processing big data have significantly reduced the processing time of information. For the targeted study, energy-generating industry enterprises were considered. The calculation results show that an increase in the revenue growth rate reduces the value of the business. For this, a particular term is used – destruction. The primary condition for an increase in value with an increase in revenue is the excess of the operating profitability of an organization over its capital-output ratio, taking into account the discount rate. Model calculations showed that for many Russian organizations in the selected industry, the optimization conditions for maximizing the value are not met, which allows us to speak of the destruction of the value of Russian power generating organizations.
The goal of investigation is to create data collection tools for studying the security aspects of information interaction between distributed devices and applications of the Internet of Things (IoT). To achieve the goal, the tasks were solved: a specialized research stand including all functional levels of the IoT architecture was developed, tools for collecting and aggregating data were created and indicators to detect network anomalies were built. The specialized stand includes a sensor level, which consists of measuring devices for monitoring the environment, a transport level implemented on the basis of a corporate network infrastructure, a data collection and storage cluster with various configurations of security settings is deployed for the service level, software for working with data is placed at the application level. The tools collect, aggregate and analyze structured data and logs unstructured on network traffic, taking into account the configuration settings of the security policies of telecommunications nodes. The indicators reflecting the activity and legitimacy of requests with distribution by days, countries and servers have been constructed. The tools are designed for cybersecurity specialists and allow you to analyze the impact of the IoT architecture on the security of the information interaction of network elements.
The paper presents an approach to creating a digital twin of the PCB electronic equipment production. A two-level decomposition of the production process into operations, steps and further to the functional units of the used technological equipment and tools for automated and manual assembly operations is applied. The modeling of manual assembly operations is considered, a complex digital model of the workplace for component mounting using an anthropomorphic dummy of the assembly operator is presented. Tecnomatix software from Siemens DI was used. On the example of the developed digital production model and the typical product, a number of scenarios for organizing the workplace and the production site as a whole are considered, discrete simulation modeling is performed, and the main results are analyzed in relation to the performance of the designed site. The digital model was modernized in order to increase the loading of process equipment and increase the overall productivity of the assembly site.
On the basis of the created software package, special information, mathematical and algorithmic support is proposed for the module "Planning under risk conditions" of the software package "Ecological and mathematical modeling of agricultural production". A parametric ecological and mathematical model for optimizing the production of agricultural products, taking into account the risks associated with climatic events, is described. With the help of an algorithm for identifying abnormal levels by constructing multilevel trends and stochastic analysis, production risks in the future are estimated with the determination of damages from crop loss. The test tasks were implemented on the example of the agricultural organization of the Irkutsk region of the Primorsky Agricultural District of the Nukutsky district, whose activities are significantly affected by the risks associated with extreme climatic events, primarily droughts. Multilevel trends are based on the example of a time series of grain yields.
Calculations of dynamic processes in the elements of thermal power plants (heat exchangers, combustion chambers, turbomachines, etc.) are necessary to justify the permissible and optimal operating modes, select elements of design characteristics, assess their reliability, etc. These problems are reduced to solving systems of partial differential equations. Currently, for such calculations, the finite difference method and the finite element method are mainly used. These methods are cumbersome and complicated. The article proposes a method, the main idea of which is to reduce the solution of these systems of equations to the solution of linear programming (LP) problems. The operation of the method is demonstrated on the example of a batch heat exchanger.
This article is devoted, first of all, to the study of the behavior of the «area» non-linearity criterion for additive power regressions with one explanatory variable depending on the degree. This criteria was examined for monotonicity and it is proved that its limits at infinity are equal to one. Based on the proved theorem, the concept of «funnel of nonlinearity» is introduced. It is shown how with the help of «nonlinearity funnels» it is possible to control the degree of nonlinearity for additive power regressions when estimating. A new criteria of non-linearity is proposed, calculated as the difference between unity and the value of the coefficient of determination in a linear regression of the dependence of the explanatory variable on the same variable raised to a power. It has been established that the proposed criterion is correct to use only on large samples.
The article discusses a technique to estimate parameters of a pointing model for atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT) by deviations of image positions of stars on the focal plane during calibration measurements. The model for calculation of the telescope position and estimation of the focal plane rotation angle using shaft encoders readouts are presented. To estimate the parameters, it is proposed to use gradient optimization methods with an initial approximation obtained from linear regression under the assumption of a small focal plane rotation angle, followed by a posterior probability distributions calculation using Markov chain Monte Carlo method to precise the parameters. Results of technique tests on simulated data are presented, the approach allows to obtain robust estimates of the parameters.
Weakly-supervised neural network object detection is used when a large amount of labeled data is not available. The results of experiments in various studies show that the quality of weakly-supervised models does not exceed the quality of fully-supervised models. Proposed approach improves the quality of barcodes detector and reduces the cost of obtaining markup, using a small amount of labeled data and a large amount of unlabeled data. The quality of the model trained on a small part (169 examples) of labeled data: Precision = 0.627, Recall = 0.869, F1 = 0.728, the quality of object classification regardless of objects type: Accuracy = 0.624. The quality of the improved model trained on artificially labeled data (2531 examples) and tuned on labeled data (169 examples): Precision = 0.856, Recall = 0.892, F1 = 0.874, quality of object classification regardless of objects type: Accuracy = 0.924.
The paper deals with the problem of synthesis of non-redundant mechanical structures of complex technical systems. A hypergraph is used as a mathematical model of the mechanical structure. This model adequately describes the processes of assembly, disassembly and decomposition of the product into assembly units. It can be used to identify the structural redundancy of the product. In terms of the hypergraph model, overcoming redundancy is called linearization. It is shown that this operation can lead to the appearance of forbidden figures, that is, such subgraphs that describe unassembled constructive fragments. Algorithms are proposed that make it possible to perform linearization followed by a check for the presence of forbidden figures. The developed algorithms can be used in the design of complex technical systems in modern integrated CAD/CAM/CAE systems.
Studying the durability of impellers of the turbomachine taking into account the intentional mistuning parameters using sensitivity analysis, which differ in the geometric complexity of structures, requires large computing resources. In this regard, it is necessary to develop methods in order to reduce the required computer costs (memory, speed), thereby reducing the complexity of simulation and speeding up the design process. This paper presents a mathematical model for optimizing the introduction of intentional mistuning in order to obtain structures with increased durability. The article is devoted to the application of mathematical models for predicting and optimizing the fatigue life of an axial bladed disk with intentional mistuning based on the finite element method (FEM). A numerical study of the introduction of intentional mistuning based on the created mathematical models of the dynamic load of turbomachine blades and estimation of resource characteristics has been carried out. The ANSYS WORKBENCH software package and original author's programs were used to study the effect of intentional mistuning of the bladed disk. The object of this research is an academic bladed disk with 10 blades, manufactured at the Brandenburg University of Technology. Using the obtained results in this work makes it possible to increase the efficiency and reliability at the design stage of turbomachine bladed disk parts. On the basis of such results, it is possible to provide the necessary accuracy of calculations and conduct computational experiments to study the effect of intentional mistuning parameters on the durability of axial impellers.